Use the following Firewall and Port table to determine firewall requirements and which ports to open. Then, review the network address translation (NAT) terminology because NAT can be implemented in many different ways. For a detailed example of firewall port settings, see the reference architectures in Topologies for External User Access.
A/V Firewall and Port Requirements
|Federation||Feature||TCP/443||UDP/3478||RTP/UDP 50,000-59,999||RTP/TCP 50,000-59,999|
|Lync Server 2010||A/V||Open inbound||Open inboundOpen outbound||Do not open in either direction||Open outbound|
|Lync Server 2010||Application sharing/desktop sharing||Open inbound||Open inboundOpen outbound||Do not open in either direction||Open outbound|
|Lync Server 2010||File transfer||Open inbound||Open inboundOpen outbound||Do not open in either direction||Open outbound|
|Office Communications Server 2007 R2||A/V||Open inbound||Open inboundOpen outbound||Do not open in either direction||Open outbound|
|Office Communications Server 2007 R2||Desktop sharing||Open inbound||Open inboundOpen outbound||Do not open in either direction||Open outbound|
|Office Communications Server 2007 R2||File transfer||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Office Communications Server 2007||A/V||Open inbound||Open inbound||Open inboundOpen outbound||Open inboundOpen outbound|
|Office Communications Server 2007||Desktop sharing||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Office Communications Server 2007||File transfer||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Note: (inbound) refers to RTP/TCP and RTP/UDP traffic from the Internet to the A/V Edge external interface.
(outbound) refers to RTP/TCP and RTP/UDP traffic from the A/V Edge external interface to the Internet.
External A/V Firewall Port Requirements for External User Access
The firewall port requirements for external (and internal) SIP and conferencing (PowerPoint presentations, whiteboarding and polling) interfaces are consistent, regardless of the version your federation partner is running.
The same is not true for the Audio/Video Edge external interface. In most cases, the A/V Edge service requires that external firewall rules allow RTP/TCP and RTP/UDP traffic in the 50,000 through 59,999 port range to flow in one or both directions. For example, opening this port range is required to support certain federation scenarios and the preceding table provides the details for each scenario. The table assumes that Lync Server 2010 is the primary federation partner and it is being configured to communicate with one of the four federation partner types listed.
|Note: Regarding the 50,000-59,999 port range, the best practice for Lync Server 2010 is to open it outbound, to “Any” for RDP/TCP for the A/V Edge external interface if corporate policy allows.|
NAT Requirements for External User Access
NAT is typically a routing function, but newer devices such as firewalls, and even hardware load balancers can be configured for NAT. Rather than focusing on which device is performing NAT, this topic describes the required NAT behavior instead.
Microsoft Lync Server 2010 communications software does not support NAT for traffic to or from the Edge internal interface, but for the Edge external interface, the following NAT behavior is required. This documentation uses the acronyms ChangeDST and ChangeSRC in tables and drawings to define the following required behavior:
- ChangeDST The process of changing the destination IP address on packets destined for the network that is using NAT. This is also known as transparency, port forwarding, destination NAT mode, or half-NAT mode.
- ChangeSRC the process of changing the source IP address on packets leaving the network that is using NAT. This is also known as proxy, secure NAT, stateful NAT, source NAT or full-NAT mode.
Regardless of the naming convention used, the NAT behavior required for the external interface of the Edge Server is as follows:
- For traffic from the Internet to the Edge external interface:
- Change the destination IP address of the incoming packet from the Edge external interface public IP address to the translated IP address of the Edge external interface.
- Leave the source IP address intact so that there is a return route for the traffic.
- For traffic from the Edge external interface to the Internet:
- Change the source IP address of the packet leaving the Edge external interface, from the translated IP address to the public IP address of the Edge external interface so that the internal Edge IP address is not exposed and because it is a non-routable IP address.
- Leave the destination IP address intact on the outgoing packets.
The following figure shows the distinction between changing the destination IP address (ChangeDST) for inbound traffic and changing the source IP Address (ChangeSRC) for outbound traffic using the A/V edge as an example.
Changing the destination IP address (ChangeDST) for inbound traffic and changing the source IP Address (ChangeSRC)
The key points are:
- For traffic incoming to the A/V Edge, the source IP address does not change but the destination IP address changes from 18.104.22.168 to the translated IP address of 10.45.16.10.
For traffic outbound from the A/V Edge back to the workstation, the source IP address changes from that of the server’s public IP address to that of the A/V Edge’s public IP address. And the destination IP remains the workstation’s public IP address. After the packet leaves the first NAT device outbound, the rule on the NAT device changes the source IP address from the A/V Edge’s external interface IP address (10.45.16.10) to its public IP address (22.214.171.124).